HEATING EFFECT ON PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PROXIMATE CONTENTS OF COOKED AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF PHASEOLUS VULGARIS (KIDNEY BEANS)

  • Idoko A Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Caritas University, Amorji – Nike, P.M.B. 01784, Enugu, Nigeria.
  • Onyinye AN Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Caritas University, Amorji – Nike, P.M.B. 01784, Enugu, Nigeria.
  • Blessing NO Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Caritas University, Amorji – Nike, P.M.B. 01784, Enugu, Nigeria.
  • Ayomide TA Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Caritas University, Amorji – Nike, P.M.B. 01784, Enugu, Nigeria.
  • Philip OC Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Caritas University, Amorji – Nike, P.M.B. 01784, Enugu, Nigeria.
  • Nwali ON Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Caritas University, Amorji – Nike, P.M.B. 01784, Enugu, Nigeria.

Abstract

Objective: Plant chemicals and nutrients abound in different parts of plants and in different compositions. P. vulgaris (kidney beans) is a nourishing leguminous food commonly eaten by both human beings and animals in the world due to its health benefits and risk reduction of diseases. It is however, indispensible for plants’ food stuff to retain their phytonutrients for maximum benefits. This study therefore investigated the effect of heat on the phytochemicals and proximate contents in cooked P. vulgaris (kidney beans).


Methods: P. vulgaris (kidney bean) was prepared by winnowing, hand picking of stones and removal of dirt and then lightly washed to remove dust and air dried.  Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis and proximate (nutrient contents) analysis were determined on fresh kidney bean (FKB) and cooked kidney bean (CKB).


Results: Results of phytochemical quantification revealed a significant (p˂0.05) increase of alkaloids and saponins in FKB than those in CKB, significant (p˂0.05) increase of flavonoids, glycosides and tannins in CKB than those in FKB. While proximate analysis of cooked sample (CKB) showed significant (p˂0.05) increase in protein content, crude ash content and carbohydrate content FKB.


Conclusion: Obviously, the increased concentrations of phytochemicals in fresh Phaseolus vulgaris may be due to the absence of heat action and the heating effect on cooked P. vulgaris could unleash the high rich nutrients value and could supply its antioxidants roles, thereby improving healthy life when eaten cooked. It was observed that cooking significantly reduced the crude fat. Cooking increased the levels of flavonoids, carbohydrate and protein contents.


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Peer Review History:


Received 9 December 2019;   Revised 20 December; Accepted 3 January, Available online 15 January 2020


Academic Editor: Rola Jadallahorcid22.jpg, Arab American University, Palestine, rola@aauj.edu


UJPR follows the most transparent and toughest ‘Advanced OPEN peer review’ system. The identity of the authors and, reviewers will be known to each other. This transparent process will help to eradicate any possible malicious/purposeful interference by any person (publishing staff, reviewer, editor, author, etc) during peer review. As a result of this unique system, all reviewers will get their due recognition and respect, once their names are published in the papers. We expect that, by publishing peer review reports with published papers, will be helpful to many authors for drafting their article according to the specifications. Auhors will remove any error of their article and they will improve their article(s) according to the previous reports displayed with published article(s). The main purpose of it is ‘to improve the quality of a candidate manuscript’. Our reviewers check the ‘strength and weakness of a manuscript honestly’. There will increase in the perfection, and transparency.


Received file:blue_23983.gif                Reviewer's Comments:download_logo_r_29189.gif


Average Peer review marks at initial stage: 5.0/10


Average Peer review marks at publication stage: 7.5/10


Reviewer(s) detail:


Prof. Dr. Hüsniye Kayalarorcid22.jpg, Ege University, Turkey, husniyekayalar@gmail.com


Dr. Mohamed Said Fathy Al-Refaeyorcid22.jpg, University of Sadat City, Menofia, Egypt, Mohamed.said@fop.usc.edu.eg


Dr. Gehan Fawzy Abdel Raoof Kandeelorcid22.jpg, Pharmacognosy Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, 12622,  Giza, Egypt, gehankandeel9@yahoo.com 


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Keywords: Cooked bean, fresh bean, heating effect, Phaseolus vulgaris, phytochemicals, proximate content

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How to Cite
A, I., O. AN, B. NO, A. TA, P. OC, and N. ON. “HEATING EFFECT ON PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PROXIMATE CONTENTS OF COOKED AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF PHASEOLUS VULGARIS (KIDNEY BEANS)”. Universal Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, Vol. 4, no. 6, Jan. 2020, doi:https://doi.org/10.22270/ujpr.v4i6.334.
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Research Articles