PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH VULVOVAGINAL CANDIDIASIS DURING PREGNANCY IN SANA'A, YEMEN

  • Abdullah AD Al-Rukeimi Department of Obstetrics and gynecology, Saudi Hajjah Hospital, Hajjah city, Yemen. Department of community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana’a University, Yemen
  • Sameera Mohammad Mahdi Al-Hatami Department of Medical Microbiology and Clinical Immunology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana’a University
  • Dheya A. AL-Danany Department of Medical Microbiology and Clinical Immunology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana’a University
  • Hassan Abdulwahab Al-Shamahy Department of Medical Microbiology and Clinical Immunology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana’a https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6958-7012
  • Raghad Abdullah Ali Al Rukeimi Department of Obstetrics and gynecology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana’a University, Republic of Yemen

Abstract

Background and objective: Women at pregnancy are further susceptible to vaginal colonization and yeast infection. The responsibility of Candida colonization in the incidence of preterm birth is correctly established. Knowing regional epidemiology and identifying risk factors of preterm birth are important for management and preventive strategies. The aim of the study was to reveal the prevalence of Candida species in vaginal swabs of pregnant women and determine odds ratio of risks for vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC).


Methods:   Pregnant women attendance routine antenatal visits in Al-Olify –family Center in Sana'a city were registered into a cross-sectional study carried out from June 2018 to March 2019. The laboratory works were carried out in the National Center of Public Laboratories (NCPHL). Samples of vaginal swabs were taken from contributors after obtaining oral consent. The classification of the Candida species was done by culture on HiCrome Candida Differential Agar at 35 °C for 48 h for making of species-specific colors. Data of demographic, clinical and risk factors were collected in a pre-designed questionnaire.


Results: A total of 190 pregnant women are included. The rate of VVC was 51.6%. Candida albicans accounted for 39.5% and non-Candida albicans accounted for 12.1% of isolates, mainly C. glabrata (4.7%), C. lipolytica (3.2%), and C. famata (2.1%). When VVC risk factors were considered, there were significant risk factors with the age group 20-24 years (61%, odds ratio (OR) = 1.8), first trimester of pregnancy (61.1%, OR = 1.7), Multipara of  parity (61.8%, OR = 1.9), low socioeconomic level (60.1%, OR =2.4), and illiteracy (68%, OR = 2.2). When clinical symptoms were considered, only 86.2% of affected females had clinical signs of VVC.


Conclusions: There is a high probable rate of VVC is found among pregnant women in Yemen, undiagnosed and unnoticed; and this highlights the need for health authorities to develop strategies for diagnosing VVC, including vaginal swabs for candidiasis as a routine procedure for all pregnant women. This study also revealed a steady increase in time with a non-C. albicans species  prevalence rate. VVC syndrome management guidelines in Yemen should be revised to include a special protocol for pregnant women.


Peer Review History:


Received 14 May 2020; Revised 15 June; Accepted 1 July, Available online 15 July 2020


UJPR follows the most transparent and toughest ‘Advanced OPEN peer review’ system. The identity of the authors and, reviewers will be known to each other. This transparent process will help to eradicate any possible malicious/purposeful interference by any person (publishing staff, reviewer, editor, author, etc) during peer review. As a result of this unique system, all reviewers will get their due recognition and respect, once their names are published in the papers. We expect that, by publishing peer review reports with published papers, will be helpful to many authors for drafting their article according to the specifications. Auhors will remove any error of their article and they will improve their article(s) according to the previous reports displayed with published article(s). The main purpose of it is ‘to improve the quality of a candidate manuscript’. Our reviewers check the ‘strength and weakness of a manuscript honestly’. There will increase in the perfection, and transparency.


Received file


pdf3.JPG


Average Peer review marks at initial stage: 5.5/10


Average Peer review marks at publication stage: 8.0/10


Reviewer(s) detail:


Name: Dr. Michael Otakhor Erhunmwunse


Affiliation: BTU – Cottbus, Germany


E-mail: dedoctor4life@yahoo.com


 


Name: Dr. Mohamed Awad Mousnad 


Affiliation: Faculty of Pharmacy, International University of Africa (IUA), Khartoum, Sudan


E-mail: m_abdalaziz@yahoo.com


 


Comments of reviewer(s):


word_icon_3.jpg


Similar Articles:


TETANUS IMMUNIZATION AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN: COVERAGE RATE AND RATE OF PROTECTION AT TIME OF DELIVERY


AN EXHAUSTIVE STATISTIC ON CURRENT MUCOADHESIVE INTRAVAGINAL DRUG DELIVERY METHODOLOGIES

Keywords: Candida, Epidemiology, Pregnancy, Sana’a, Vulvovaginal candidiasis, VVC, Yemen
Statistics
30 Views | 52 Downloads
How to Cite
Al-Rukeimi, A. A., S. M. M. Al-Hatami, D. A. AL-Danany, H. A. Al-Shamahy, and R. A. A. Al Rukeimi. “PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH VULVOVAGINAL CANDIDIASIS DURING PREGNANCY IN SANA’A, YEMEN”. Universal Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, Vol. 5, no. 3, July 2020, doi:https://doi.org/10.22270/ujpr.v5i3.407.
Section
Research Articles