Ritonavir is human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor used as the antiretroviral agent. The objective of the present investigation was to formulate and evaluate Ritonavir gastro-retentive floating microballoons for controlled release. Different batches of microballoons were prepared by the emulsion solvent diffusion method. The resultant microballoons were evaluated for percentage yield, entrapment efficiency, particle size, and in vitro drug release, stability study. The densities of floating microspheres were found to be less than the density of gastric fluid (1.004 g/cm3). The entrapment efficiency of prepared floating microspheres was satisfactory (68.37 to 88.52%). Among all formulations, FM1 prepared with polymer HPMC was found to be the best as it exhibited highest drug release (89.07%) in 12 hrs and was stable for three months at ambient conditions.


Peer Review History:

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Received file


Average Peer review marks at initial stage: 3.5/10

Average Peer review marks at publication stage: 7.5/10

Reviewer(s) detail:

Name: Dr. Maha Khalifa Ahmed Khalifa

Affiliation: Al-Azhar Universit - Cairo, Egypt 



Name: Prof. Dr. Amani S. Awaad

Affiliation: College of Pharmacy, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj. KSA


Comments of reviewer(s):


Keywords: Hollow microballoons, floating drug delivery, Ritonavir, in vitro drug release, gastro-retentive.
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How to Cite
Ikechukwu, U., D. Francis, and A. A. “DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF RITONAVIR HOLLOW MICROBALLOONS FOR FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY”. Universal Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, Vol. 2, no. 2, Mar. 2017, doi:
Research Articles